A brother recently asked me on how to invite a pantheist to Monotheism. Although I have earlier mentioned in my previous article on ‘what about other religions’ that one of the evidences for Islam is that the concept of God that the Quran preaches and that which we derive from the scientific evidence for God is the same. But let me clarify that here as well.
First of all from the scientific evidence on The Origin of Universe we derive that Universe has a transcendent cause, who is Eternal, and outside time and space. And that He is One, as we do not multiply Entities without necessity.
From Intelligence behind the origin of life and the fine tuning of the universe, and other similar scientific evidences we derive that this cause is a Wise and intelligent Being as he designed the Universe and Life in it.
This concept is compatible with the monotheistic concept of God and not Pantheistic. Though a pantheistic worldview affirms the existence of an impersonal god, the god of pantheistic religions and philosophy exists within, and is co-extensive with, the physical universe. God as conceived by pantheists cannot act to bring the physical universe into being from nothing (physical), since such a god does not exist independently of the physical universe. If initially the physical universe did not exist, the pantheistic god would not exist either. If it did not exist, it could not be invoked to explain the origin of the universe from (physical) nothing.
If the universe is finite, as the Big Bang and general relativity affirm, at least on the most straightforward rendering of each, then these theories provide confirmation of the metaphysical hypothesis of theism. Further, theism provides a better, more causally adequate explanation for the evidence of a finite universe than its main metaphysical competitors.
Furthermore, as we mentioned that the scientific evidence suggests that this Being is also an Intelligent Being. Since pantheism, with its belief in an immanent and impersonal god, also denies the existence of a transcendent and pre-existent intelligence, it too lacks causal adequacy as an explanation for these evidences. Indeed, a completely impersonal intelligence is almost a contradiction in terms. Thus, theism stands as the best explanation of the two worldviews for the origin of the Big Bang singularity and fine-tuning of Universe and Design in Life taken jointly.
In addition to the above mentioned scientific evidences, we also have evidence from philosophy. As we know that objective morality exists. There are things that are objectively morally wrong, whether people believe in them or not. For example the holocaust was objectively morally wrong, irrespective of what the people of the time believed. However for objective morality to make sense, the source of this objective morality has to be outside and independent of the Universe. Therefor objective morality stands as evidence for the Islamic concept of God.
Thus we conclude that that belief in One God who is outside time and space is the correct concept as it is supported by both scientific and philosophical evidences.