As we have previously shown, Fine Tuning of the Universe, provides a strong evidence for existence of God. This fine tuning is of two sorts. First, when the laws of nature are expressed as mathematical equations, they contain certain constants, such as the gravitational constant. The mathematical value of these constants is not determined by the laws of nature. Second, there are certain arbitrary quantities that are just part of the initial conditions of the universe. These constants and quantities fall into an extraordinarily narrow range of life-permitting values.
An alternative explanation to the Fine Tuning, is given from the Multiverse Hypothesis. The multiverse is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including the historical universe we consistently experience) that together comprise everything that exists and can exist. However , as we shall see, the Multiverse does not provide a better explanation than God.
Let us analyse the multiverse hypothesis and see its explanatory power for the fine tuning.
Two types of fine tuning need to be explained
- Fine tuning of the initial conditions
- Fine tuning of the laws and constants of Physics
In the context of physics, when you come up with multiverse, you have to come up with some sort of universe generating mechanism. Two of them have been proposed. One is String Theory. And the other is Inflationary Cosmology.
And it turns out that the inflation could possibly explain the fine tuning of the initial conditions but not the fine tuning of the laws and constants of physics. To explain the laws and constants of physics, you would need to invoke the string theoretical landscape. And so you have got two speculative cosmologies necessary to explain two different parts of the fine tuning.
As a result of that you have to invoke a number of pure theoretical postulations in contrast to the single theistic design explanation that is consistent with our experience of what designers do.
Six conjectures required for the multiverse explanation
- Inflaton field exists
- Inflation is eternal into the future.
- Strings exist and are the fundamental constituents of material reality.
- Six or seven (in M-Theory) extra hidden dimensions of space exist.
- All of the different compactifications of these extra hidden spatial dimensions instantiated in different universes that actually exist.
- The probabilistic resources constructed from inflation fields and the string landscape are sufficient to explain away the fine-tuning of the initial conditions , laws, and constants of our universe.
None of these six postulates are clear. Its not clear how you relate these two speculative cosmologies. Its not clear that Can they be related in an inherently coherent way. Both of them presuppose prior fine tuning, for example the shutoff energy of the inflaton field needs to be finely tuned. So they don’t get rid of the fine tuning ultimately. So when you add all that up, theistic argument is stronger.
Problems with the many world Hypothesis
- Main models for producing new universes don’t provide a mechanism for varying the laws and constants of physics, the initial conditions of the universe or both
- All main universe creating mechanisms require fine tuning.
- None involve an Extrapolation Based on what we know about cause and effect.
However, based on our experience of cause and effect, we know that Intelligent Beings are capable of fine tuning. Also, additional support for the existence of and Intelligent designer comes from other fields of science, as we have shown in our science section of this website. Thus we conclude that the fine tuning of the Universe is better explained by the existence of God, rather than the Multiverse.